The Growth Mindset

In Carol Dweck’s quest to change our mindsets from fixed to growth, she lists four steps to enlist positive self-talk that will train us to stop labeling ourselves and start growing:

Step 1: “Learn to hear your fixed mindset ‘voice’”. Look at how you approach challenges, setbacks, and criticism. When you face a challenge, do you worry that you’ll be “a failure” if you fail? Do you quit easily when you hit a setback because you want to keep your dignity? Do you get angry when people give you criticism; do you hear them saying “you’re not capable” when they’re actually offering constructive criticism that could make your work better?

Step 2: “Recognize that you have a choice. How you interpret challenges, setbacks, and criticism is your choice”. Instead of focusing on your beliefs that you either have talent, or you don’t, interpret these things as opportunities for growth.

Step 3: “Talk back to it with a growth mindset voice”. Change your fixed mindset by rephrasing how you approach a challenge, setback, or criticism. Instead of saying “Are you sure you can do it? Maybe you don’t have the talent”, say “I’m not sure I can do it now, but I think I can learn with time and effort”.

Step 4: “Take the growth mindset action”. Accept challenges, learn from mistakes, and think of criticism as a tool for growth.

This growth mindset is important if we want to reach our full potential. In “The Power of Belief- Mindset and Success”, Eduardo Briceno argues that the way we think influences our efforts. I can relate to this argument by looking at biology. All traits have a genetic and an environmental component. Oftentimes, the environmental component is just as strong or stronger than the genetic component. Take for instance, height: it isn’t a set characteristic. Children will grow taller if given the best nutrition; conversely, a poor diet can stunt growth. Even love and affection from others influences how well a baby thrives. We can’t change the genetic component, but we can set up the right conditions for growth. This is why we need to stop focusing on intrinsic talents or our perceived intelligence because they are not fixed, as some would think. They can be influenced and developed. Dweck and Briceno aren’t saying that anyone can become president if they just put their minds to it. That would be an oversimplification- like saying that if I feed my 2-year old enough vegetables, he’ll be 7 feet tall- not likely with both parents under 5’9”. This isn’t some cliché “just-adopt-a-positive-attitude…I think I can I think I can” self-help idea, as Alfie Kohn asserts in his article, “The ‘Mindset’ Mindset”. Carol Dweck is saying that the growth mindset is the right environment for success, for reaching our own potential.

In my Learning Philosophy, I make a statement that seems obvious: “The whole point of education should be to help the students learn- and learn deeply”. Unfortunately, many schools and teachers fail to create an environment where learning reaches its full potential. Kids who are praised for being “smart” are actually hindered in the learning process because they develop a fixed mindset and feel like they have to maintain that perception. They challenge themselves less to ensure that they will succeed. They give up easily and think that because they’re smart, they shouldn’t need to put effort into their work. They don’t like criticism and feel threatened by the success of others. This is counterintuitive in a culture that tells us we have to praise our kids so they’ll have good self-esteem. The key is in praising effort and not labeling kids- even if it’s positive labeling. It leads to wanting to look smart, and it actually hinders learning. When we praise efforts, we’re encouraging a growth mindset. People with a growth mindset believe that intelligence and talents can be developed.  They embrace challenges, don’t give up, see effort as a pathway to mastery, and learn from criticism because it helps them grow. One of the things I can do to encourage a growth mindset is to be careful with my criticism: if a student hasn’t done a good job on an assignment, or doesn’t “get it”, I will let them know that they’re not there yet. The simple word, yet, implies that it’s possible to get there; it just requires more effort.1_pqbc8jcd5yu4x2wxccgu1g

Our current educational system focuses heavily on what students know (standardized testing) instead of what they can do with what they know. The latter requires a need to know how to learn because information is constantly changing and growing in breadth. This is why it’s critical to cultivate a growth mindset in the digital age.  In my article, Creating a Significant Learning Environment, I touch on ways to create the conditions for deeper learning. Imagination, play, and questioning are central to cultivating a passion for learning. In combination with encouraging a growth mindset, I want students to realize their potential is way beyond what they may imagine.

Encouraging a growth mindset in adult learners is going to require more than simply praising their efforts. They’ve had too many other outside influences that shape how they see themselves and how much they think they can do. Shifting their coursework away from a solitary focus on foundational knowledge that includes application, integration, human dimensions and caring, and learning how to learn is going to help create that significant learning environment. I outline my ideas for implementing authentic learning in my BHAG and also in Understanding by Design; they’re slightly different approaches to designing a course, but both are useful. I also plan on introducing my students to Carol Dweck’s work so they can understand what kind of mindset they dwell in, and hopefully make changes if necessary.

Creating the right environment for learning is no easy task. It flips traditional ideas of classroom learning on its head and turns it into something different- something far better. Many people don’t like change, so knowing that there will be opposition will require perseverance, something that can’t be done with a fixed mindset. I realize that my innovation plan is a huge goal. I have told myself that it might be too big to pull off. That kind of thinking is giving up before I have even begun because I don’t want to be seen as a failure- even if it’s only in my own mind. I need to change my thinking and say to myself “I have this huge dream that will only be successful if I’m willing to try. I may not be ready now, but I can progressively work towards success.” That kind of thinking will drive effort and ultimately, success.


Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. ISBN 978-0-345-47232-8. New York: Random House Publishing Group.

Dweck, C. (2010). How can you change from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset? Retrieved from

Harapnuik, D. (2013). Fixed Vs Growth Mindset= Print Vs Digital Information Age. Retrieved from

Kohn, A. (2015). The “Mindset” Mindset. Retrieved from

TEDx. (2012). Eduardo Briceno: The Power of belief- mindset and success. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Tucker, C. (2014). Fixed vs. Growth Mindsets: Activity 7.4. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Understanding by Design

Last week, I explored backward design by using Fink’s 3-column table and my BHAG. For this assignment, I experimented with Understanding by Design, a similar, but much more detailed model for backward design. I appreciate both methods, as they are focused on outcomes. UbD makes a point to ensure that the curriculum is focused on deeper learning, not just recall of information or pointless (although engaging) activities.ce3fda2eb423055c948175f114415552

After working with both models, I strongly prefer Fink’s 3-column table with my BHAG over UbD. It’s clear, simple, and outcome-focused. It can be used as an overview for an entire course and also for individual class meetings.

That being said, UbD helped me understand how to effectively design a course. These processes can be used not only to design courses, but I imagine I can apply them to my Innovation Plan as well. I can develop learning outcomes for Dental- Medical Collaborative Care and use backward design to incorporate the activities necessary across all dental hygiene courses.

Here is my UbD plan for Dental Radiography:

Stage 1: Identify Desired Results

Established Goals:

  1. Learners will investigate the concepts of electromagnetic radiation and how X-radiation is used in dentistry.
  2. Learners will practice radiography skills and trouble-shoot errors.
  3. Learners will analyze how taking quality radiographs aids in proper diagnosis for their patients.
  4. Learners will analyze the importance of safety for themselves and their patients.
  5. Students will investigate new technology in radiography and how it can improve upon current modalities.


What essential questions will be considered?                  

What understandings are desired?

What is X-radiation and how is it different from other forms of radiation?


How is X-radiation used for medical and dental purposes?


What are the criteria for clinically acceptable dental radiographs?


How can errors be identified and corrected?


How do we ensure safety for ourselves and our patients when working with X-radiation?


What will dental radiography look like in the future?

Students will understand that…


There are different energies associated with different types of electromagnetic radiation.


Natural background radiation exists, comprising about half of human exposure to radiation.


Man-made dental X-rays are short wavelength, high energy forms of ionizing radiation.


Good radiographic technique and skill are vital in order to minimize retakes and produce quality, diagnostic radiographs.


Without the aid of radiographs, many conditions such as periodontal disease, caries, abscesses, cysts, and impacted teeth could remain undetected. Radiographs assist in earlier diagnosis which greatly improves treatment outcomes.


The American Dental Association has guidelines for prescribing radiographs that align with the concept of ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) that stresses evaluating each individual’s needs for X-rays.




What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this course?


Students will know…


Key terms: electromagnetic radiation, X-radiation, radiograph, kilovoltage peak (kVp), milliamperage (mA), developer, fixer, safelight, digital sensor, bitewing, periapical, occlusal, panoramic, Cone Beam Computed Tomography, ALARA


What radiation is and how it can produce images on film


Different types of radiographic projections


The differences between analog and digital radiography


How X-radiation affects biological tissues and the importance of safety and precautions


The ADA guidelines for prescribing dental radiographs


Future trends and new technology in radiography


Students will be able to…


Decide which radiographs are appropriate for different situations


Take, develop, and mount diagnostic dental X-rays


Use digital imaging to obtain radiographs


Assess their skills and make corrections in technique as needed


Use proper safety precautions for themselves and their patients


Interpret dental radiographs


Research new technology that will likely be used in dental radiography in the future



Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence


What evidence will show that students understand?

Project and presentation: using the learner’s choice of media, they will address and discuss safety concerns. Examples may include: PPE, dosimeters and lead aprons, calibration of machines/ quality control, radiographs on cancer patients, biological effects of radiation, Osteoradionecrosis, non-medical/dental sources of radiation, minimizing re-takes and unnecessary exposure


Project: based on their research, learners will imagine their ideal radiography operatory for the future. They will include:

The type of technology they want to incorporate and why

What brands they prefer

Projected costs

How it will benefit the patients

How it will benefit the dental practice


What other evidence needs to be collected in light of Stage 1 Desired Results?

Graded sets of radiographs, Chapter minute papers, pre- and post-class Kahoot quizzes, Midterm exam and Final exam



Student Self-Assessment and Reflection:

Learners will assess the radiographs they take in class for acceptability, based on the criteria for diagnostic radiographs


Learners will identify their errors and explain how to correct them


Learners will discuss in class and share their experiences as dental assistants or dental patients, and how they will do things differently after this course



Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences


1.       Ask the students “Can people become radioactive when they are exposed to X-rays?”H

2.       Learners will read assigned chapters in their textbook, Essentials of Dental Radiography for Dental Assistants and Hygienists for each class meeting. W

3.       Instructor will give a pre-class Kahoot quiz on the reading material (not graded; no point value) E

4.       Instructor will present material at each class meeting, encouraging student discussion, interaction and participation E

5.       Instructor will give the same Kahoot quiz at the end of class to help with retention of the material and to practice questions that will cover the same material on the Midterm and Final E

6.       Lab: hands-on practice with taking X-rays on Dexter: traditional film and digital sensors; all types of projections. T E

7.       Students write a daily journal entry on their successes and how they can improve R E

8.       Practice developing films in the darkroom E

9.       Practice mounting radiographs E R

10.   Practice using Dexis and Dentrix software O E

11.   Discuss case studies: compare poor quality radiographs with good ones, noting what can be diagnosed from each film E R

12.   Discuss personal experiences in dental offices regarding X-ray protocols R W

13.   Review the ADA guidelines for prescribing dental radiographs. Discuss why some offices allow insurance to dictate how many and what type of X-rays are taken on patients. Discuss the ethics of this practice and ALARA R E

14.   Research current technology for dental offices and possibilities for future technology E R



Learning Activities Key:

What learning experiences and instruction will enable students to achieve the desired results? How will the design

W = Help the students know Where the unit is going and What is expected? Help the teacher know Where the students are coming from (prior knowledge, interests)?

H = Hook all students and Hold their interest?

E = Equip students, help them Experience the key ideas and Explore the issues?

R = Provide opportunities to Rethink and Revise their understandings and work?

E = Allow students to Evaluate their work and its implications?

T = Be Tailored (personalized) to the different needs, interests, and abilities of learners?

O = Be Organized to maximize initial and sustained engagement as well as effective learning?



Wiggins, Grant; McTighe, Jay. Understanding by Design, Expanded 2nd Edition (Page 22). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Kindle Edition.


Dental hygienists are expected to know how to take diagnostic radiographs and how to interpret them. Dentists will expect them to be able to discuss findings with the patient for educational purposes. Although dental hygienists cannot legally diagnose pathology, they need to have an understanding of normal anatomy and how to recognize pathology including, but not limited to: periodontal disease, caries, periapical pathology, cysts, and other abnormalities of teeth and bone. Their ability to interpret the radiographs and educate the patient is critical so that they can collaborate with the dentist and patient to create a treatment plan that will result in quality care for the patient.ottawa-dentist-jaleel-x-ray

The Radiography course I teach is an undergraduate level class that meets twice a week: 3 hours in a live classroom setting and 3 hours of lab. With 24 students in the class, the lab is divided into A and B groups, consisting of 12 students in each lab. We have Wi-Fi in the classroom, enabling the students to access pertinent websites or participate in online class activities and games. In the lab, we have a Dexis digital sensor for taking radiographs and a digital panoramic X-ray machine. The practice management software we use is Dentrix, which is compatible with Dexis. All digital X-rays are uploaded to the patients’ digital charts for ease of flipping back and forth between the X-rays and other data such as periodontal probe readings or intraoral camera pictures.

The class combines both theoretical and practical learning. The theoretical learning occurs mostly in the classroom and the practical learning occurs mostly in lab. One of the important changes in our field is the introduction of 3-D imaging (primarily Cone Beam Computed Tomography) that is predicted to become a common addition to dental offices in the future. It will improve our ability to view the tissues and subsequently improve treatment. Dental radiography is in the middle of a transition from film-based radiography to digital imaging. CODA (The Commission on Dental Accreditation) requires that we teach both, and it’s a good practice because there are still dental offices in the area that haven’t switched to digital imaging systems.

The students I teach come from varied backgrounds. They are all adult learners, but the ages range from the early 20’s to the mid 40’s. Many of them have experience as dental assistants; this can work for or against them. Sometimes they have bad habits that need to be identified and corrected so they can learn better ways of doing things, but also so they don’t spread their bad habits to other classmates. They come from different socioeconomic groups and cultural backgrounds, but they all share the common goal of becoming hygienists. Many are military veterans.seidner-dentistry-randolph-nj-dentist-dental-xrays-image

This will be my third time teaching this class. I have 13 years of practical experience gained by working in clinical practice. I love teaching this class because it’s challenging, fun, and very applicable to the profession of dental hygiene. My strengths are in giving the students real-world examples, hands-on activities, and breaking down difficult topics (chemistry, physics) in a way that makes it easier to understand. Students often comment that they can tell I love what I teach. I’m glad I can share my passion with them and hopefully instill it.


Questions for Formulating Significant Learning Goals

A year (or more) after this course is over, I want and hope that students will know how to safely take quality diagnostic radiographs, interpret them, and be able to discuss findings with their patients and dentist.

Foundational Knowledge

Learners will need to know:

  • scientific concepts of X-radiation,
  • how X-rays affect film or a digital sensor,
  • safety concerns working with radiation,
  • how to position film holders,
  • how to take radiographs,
  • how to correct errors,
  • how to interpret radiographs
  • how to discuss findings with the patient and doctor
  • future technology and its applications

Application Goals

Learners will need to use critical thinking when they interpret radiographs. They will be using their knowledge from other classes such as Dental Anatomy and Oral Pathology to evaluate whether they are viewing normal anatomy or pathology on a film, and list possible diagnoses.

They will use creative thinking when they complete assignments in lab; for instance, one assignment is to create a comic strip depicting the journey of a film through a processor.

They will also use practical thinking when solving issues such as error correction when a film is rendered undiagnostic, or working with challenging patients.why_dentists_take_xrays1

Integration Goals

Students should be able to make connections between the physics of short-wavelength radiation and how it affects human cells to why it is important to take safety measures when working with X-radiation. They should also be able to take the knowledge of using analog film and apply some of the same techniques when working with digital sensors. They should understand that although there are different digital systems available, they work in a similar way. They should be able to use their knowledge of radiographic anatomy and pathology to be able to explain radiographic findings to others.

The information in this course ties into all the other courses in the dental hygiene program. Their class on Periodontology will help them understand the bone loss they may be viewing on a radiograph. Anatomy class teaches them landmarks on a skull that they can translate into a picture on a radiograph. Oral Pathology teaches them about cysts, inflammatory lesions, and even manifestations of systemic diseases that can be seen on radiographs. Clinic classes that teach them about gathering assessments, creating treatment plans, and working with people also tie in to radiography.

The knowledge the students gain in my class will be used extensively, on a daily basis, in their work lives.

Human Dimensions Goals

Students will learn that they can take great radiographs that will make them an asset to any dental practice. Students will learn whether or not they have good interpersonal skills, and how to improve them.

Students will learn to work as a team, doing group projects in class. They will learn how to effectively interact with patients and make them feel comfortable. They will learn about their role in interacting with the dentist and how to intelligently discuss findings on radiographs and differential diagnoses.

Caring Goals

I hope students will understand the importance of empathy for patients, and learn to cultivate it. I hope they will be ethical in their use of radiation: minimizing re-takes and not taking X-rays too frequently just because insurance covers them. I want them to remember to place the welfare of the patient above profit.

“Learning-How-to-Learn” Goals

I want the students to know they are welcome to use search engines in class or at home to better understand any information they don’t quite “get”. They might be lacking some foundational knowledge that would help them understand certain topics- especially when they’re learning about chemistry and physics.

I want them to work together and learn from their peers, dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants.

In order to become self-directed learners in this course, they will need to align class objectives with what they are studying. They will need to create a plan to read their chapters before class and attend classes and labs.

My Big Hairy Audacious Goal is: By the end of this course, my students will be able to take excellent radiographs, know how to interpret them, and how radiographs are integrated into total patient care.

Using Fink’s Self-Directed Guide for Designing Courses for Significant Learning, I created a table that links learning outcomes, learning activities, and assessment activities for my Dental Radiography class:

Learning Outcomes Learning Activities Assessment Activities
Foundational Knowledge

Learners will investigate the concepts of electromagnetic radiation and how X-radiation is used in dentistry.





Read Essentials of Dental Radiography for Dental Assistants and Hygienists



Class discussions

Chapter minute papers


Pre- and Post-class Kahoot quizzes




Learners will practice radiography skills and trouble-shoot errors.

Lab: hands-on practice with taking X-rays on Dexter: traditional film and digital sensors.

Learners will practice developing their own films and mount them correctly. Using Dentrix, they will practice digital radiography and navigate the software.

Learners will assess their own radiographs for acceptability and determine ways to correct any errors


X-ray grading by teacher


Learners will analyze how taking quality radiographs aids in proper diagnosis for their patients

Discussions using case studies; learners will discuss examples of poor quality radiographs and compare them with good quality radiographs, noting what can be diagnosed from each film. Learners will create their own case studies that demonstrate differences in diagnosis based on good or poor radiographs.
Human Dimension/ Caring

Learners will analyze the importance of safety for themselves and their patients.

Discussions including personal experiences in different types of offices.


Review the ADA guidelines for radiography. Compare and contrast ideal prescription of radiographs and why some offices allow insurance to dictate how often radiographs are taken and what type.


Discuss the ethics of applying ALARA and the need for prescription of radiographs on a case-by case basis as needed.

Project and presentation: using the learner’s choice of media, they will address and discuss safety concerns. Examples may include:

PPE, dosimeters and lead aprons

Calibration of machines/ quality control

Radiographs on cancer patients

Biological effects of radiation


Non-medical/dental sources of radiation

Minimizing re-takes and unnecessary exposure

Learning How to Learn

Students will investigate new technology in radiography and how it can improve upon current modalities

Learners will research current technology available for dental offices and possibilities for future technology. Project: based on their research, learners will imagine and create their ideal radiography operatory for the future. They will include:

The type of technology they want to incorporate and why

What brands they prefer

Projected costs

How it will benefit the patients

How it will benefit the dental practice


The wonderful thing about teaching radiography is that the students get to practice their skills throughout the dental hygiene program, after the actual radiography class ends. I have many opportunities to continue dental-xrayguiding them with real-life examples of challenges and solutions to problems with anatomy or patient management. They continue to use their skills as part of total-patient care, and they get opportunities to learn from the dentists and other instructors in the clinic. Radiography is definitely a skill they will remember, as they will use it every day in their career as dental hygienists.



My Learning Philosophy

It’s vital that I structure my classroom as a learning environment, and not just a teaching environment. The difference is simple: in a learning environment, the focus is on the students and their learning. In a teaching environment, the focus is on the knowledge of the teacher. The whole point of education should be to help the students learn- and learn deeply. I think the common practice of having lecture as the primary source of instruction should be re-thought because it doesn’t always facilitate true deep learning. It leads to memorization of key points that the professor outlines in her Power Point presentation so the students can pass their tests. I am not saying that lecture is always a bad thing, but it shouldn’t be the emphasis of the class meeting. My goal as an instructor is to facilitate learning in the classroom. So, instead of constructing a teaching philosophy, I am outlining the basics of my learning philosophy. In my research, I discovered three key points that are very important to learning. They are foundational knowledge, learning to ask good questions, and passion.

Foundational knowledge is important at any grade level, in any course, but it is especially important in an accelerated healthcare program. In the dental hygiene program where I work, the information comes fast and furious. The students take pre-requisite courses that should help them build the foundational knowledge that they need for the dental hygiene program, but often there are gaps that still need to be filled. knowledgeIf a student still doesn’t understand the physiology of the pancreas, she will be even more lost when we dive into topics in diabetes. If a student learned something incorrectly, how can new knowledge be learned that needs to build on the previous knowledge? I like to begin class by asking the class questions about what they learned previously. We play Kahoots to help refresh their memories, and we go over topics that need to be revisited: usually physiology. The problem is I only have so much class time, and even after a review, some students are still in need of help with foundational knowledge. As I’ve learned more about blended learning, I realize that this could be an amazing tool to help students gain the foundational knowledge they may be lacking. If students spend some of the class face-to-face with peers and the instructor and some of the class online, they will have the time they need to review the online resources that can help them learn or re-learn the information they need.

I started thinking about how I learn the material before we discuss it in class. I realize that I never use our textbook as the only source of understanding the material, so why should I expect the students to do the same? I use Google constantly to find answers to my questions. If I need more clarification on a topic, I look at several online sources to find the answers. This is why it is so important to learn to ask good questions and to cultivate curiosity. Banner_Backgrounds_questionsI found a great resource for teaching students how to ask good questions. It’s a book called “Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask their Own Questions”. It made me realize that as teachers, in a “teaching environment”, we are the ones asking all the questions and students are spitting back answers. Deeper learning occurs when students, in a “learning environment”, can cultivate their curiosity by learning to ask good questions that lead to more questions. The book outlines the Question Formulation Technique: “Step 1: Ask as many questions as you can. Do not stop to discuss, judge, or answer the questions. Write down every question exactly as it is stated. Change any statements into questions. Step 2: Introduce the question focus. Step 3: Produce questions. Step 4: Improve questions. Students decide which questions are open-ended vs. closed-ended and discuss the advantages or disadvantages for each. Step 5: Prioritize questions and share with peers the rationales for choosing those questions. Step 6: Discuss next steps. Step 7: Reflect”. There is also a good video demonstrating the technique in a science class (Minigan, 2016). A student made an interesting comment at the end of the video: the technique not only allows a student to learn how to question, but it also helps to understand how other people think. By using the technique in small groups, the students learned how to collaborate with others and come up with even better questions together.

Passion or fun is also central to learning. Some information may seem dull, but it is necessary to understand (remember foundational knowledge?). Of course it’s ideal for students to pursue their passions, and if one is passionate about something, they will learn everything they can about what they love. I believe you can make almost any topic fun and interesting. In Gamify your Classroom, Farber (2015) introduces several games and ideas for lesson plans that integrate gaming and learning. Game-based learning can help make learning feel effortless- the way it should be! I also like to make the classroom more fun and interesting by adding creative hands-on activities. I supply the materials and some guidelines, and it’s truly amazing what the students come up with. I like to use food to help demonstrate lessons too. dsc000342In Radiography class, we make backwards PB&Js when we learn the layers of an X-ray film. After this, the students never forget the sequence of the film layers: bread (base), jelly (adhesive), crunchy peanut butter (emulsion with silver halide crystals) and smooth peanut butter (protective layer). We make eukaryotic cells in the beginning of Oral Histology out of jello and candy; this helps them remember the organelles and their functions. Food is fun, games are fun, and learning should be fun too!

I still have a lot to learn as a teacher, or as Dr. Harupnuik has appropriately coined “learning facilitator”. I plan to learn along with my students and remember that I’m not an “expert” on dental hygiene; it’s something to continually strive for. I’m just a little further along on my journey than the students are. I plan on using my own learning philosophy to continue bettering myself as a teacher. Changes will continue to occur in education and healthcare, so I need to constantly learn how to improve by asking questions, gaining knowledge, and keeping my passion for learning alive.



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Effective Use of Performance Objectives for Learning and Assessment. (2005). Teacher and Educational Development. Retrieved from

Farber, M. (2015). Gamify your Classroom. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Lynch, J. (2016). What do I have my students do in class and why. Talk About Teaching and Learning. Vol 62. Retrieved from

Minigan, A. (2016). The Question Formulation Technique in a High School Science Class. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Rothstein, D. and Satana, L. (2011). Make Just One Change: Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions. Harvard Education Press.